1911

Mexican revolutionary Emiliano Zapata proclaims his Plan de Ayala, laying out his ideology and program of land reform, whose slogan “Land and Freedom!” was a watchword of the Mexican Revolution. “The nation is tired of false men and traitors who make promises like liberators and who on arriving in power forget them and constitute themselves as tyrants.”


1877

Nez Perce leader Hinmatóowyalahtq̓it,
also known as Chief Joseph,
ends a legendary three-month flight
to Canada by surrendering to US forces.

“Do not misunderstand me,
but understand fully with
reference to my affection for the land.
I never said the land was mine to do with as I choose.
The one who has a right to dispose of it is the one who created it.”